# Understanding Zero Mean White Noise with Variance 1 and Weakly Stationary Processes

Jan 23, 2024

White noise is a fundamental concept in the field of signal processing and time series analysis. Often, we come across the term 'zero mean white noise with variance 1,' which also can be denoted as a weakly stationary process. In this article, we will explore the meaning behind this term and its implications in various applications.

Zero mean white noise is a random signal characterized by having a mean value of zero and being uncorrelated across time. It takes on values that fluctuate randomly and rapidly around the mean, hence, it resembles 'noise.' Let's break down each component:

Zero mean: The average of the signal over time is zero. It implies that the noise is evenly distributed around zero, with no underlying pattern or trend.

Variance 1: This indicates that the signal's fluctuation amplitude or intensity is consistent across time. If we calculate the variance - the mean square deviation of the values from the mean - it is equal to 1.

With these properties, zero mean white noise signals with variance 1 can be helpful in financial modeling, engineering, and communication system analysis, among others.

Now, let's discuss weakly stationary processes. A process or time series is weakly stationary (also known as covariance stationary or wide-sense stationary) if it satisfies the following conditions:

- The mean of the process is constant or does not depend on time.
- The autocovariance function depends only on the time difference and not the absolute time.

Our zero-mean white noise with variance 1 fulfills these conditions, making it a weakly stationary process. In time series analysis, weakly stationary processes are especially useful because their statistical properties remain consistent over time, which simplifies the modeling and forecast tasks.

In summary, a zero mean white noise signal with variance 1 is a random signal without underlying patterns and a consistent amplitude or intensity of fluctuations. Additionally, it qualifies as a weakly stationary process, implying that its statistical properties remain constant over time. Understanding these concepts is crucial for the application of various mathematical, statistical, and engineering methods in numerous fields.